Despite the rain and the rather cool temperatures, the bell pepper and chilli pepper plants are starting to stretch their leaves in the fields of Quebec. In a few weeks, producers will have to protect their production against a well-known enemy: the European corn borer.
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) is a pest moth that attacks several types of crops, including corn, beans, potatoes, tomatoes, apples , hop, bell peppers and chilli peppers. In these last ones, the moth lays its eggs on the foliage and the young larvae (caterpillars) once hatched penetrate the forming fruit. When eating, they cause damage that can lead to yield losses of up to 15%.
Controlling the European corn borer with insecticides, popular, but not without constraint
For the moment, chemical control is the most popular solution. However, the window for applying chemical insecticides is very short, as the migration of the young larva (caterpillar) occurs 24 hours after it hatches from the egg. Once in the fruit, it is then protected. Chemical control of the European corn borer requires 3 to 6 applications during the season.
But another very effective solution exists to control the European corn borer in the pepper, the trichogramma wasps, and they are easy to use :
Trichogramma wasps against the European corn borer
Trichogramma are tiny wasps that parasitize butterfly and moth eggs. In agriculture, they are mainly used to control corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), armyworms (Spodoptera sp.) and False looper (Trichoplusia sp.).
Trichogramma ostriniae pupae are glued to cards and introduced in the field. Once set up, adult trichogramma will emerge after 5 to 7 days, depending on environmental conditions. Upon emergence, the female trichogramma wasp will actively search for moth eggs on the surface of the pepper leaves. Once detected, she lays inside them. The trichogramma larvae will grow inside the moth egg and feed on the future caterpillar. This will cancel the future generation of Corn Borer.
The efficacy of trichogramma wasps in peppers, studies prove it
Before introduction, it is advisable to do a screening to detect the presence of pests and the state of their populations.
In 2009 and 2010, l’institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement (IRDA) with the collaboration of the University of Quebec in Montreal (UQAM) and Anatis Bioprotection, carried out a study aimed to determine the potential for using the trichogram Trichogramma ostriniae against corn borer in pepper cultivation. The team started to release at the rate of 250,000 trichogramma wasps/ha at the fruit set stage at 2 sites in Quebec. Introductions were made 10 days apart, for a total of 4 and 5 introductions during the season.
During the two years of experimentation, the results obtained demonstrated that:
- The trichograms parasitized 70.6% of the masses of moth eggs in 2009 and 66.7% in 2010.
- A reduction in damage by the moth of 41.5% in 2009 and 62.1% in 2010.
Trichogramma wasps against European corn borer in peppers - Grower results
In 2013 and 2014, project manager Marianne Lefebvre and agricultural technician Linda Roberge of the Prisme followed the introduction of trichogramma wasps in a bell peppers field at the company Serres et Jardins Girouard (Qc). In this study, the trichograms parasitized 33% of the egg masses in 2013 and 63% in 2014. During these two years, no insecticide treatment was done and the yield and quality of the fruits were great.
Introduction of the trichogramma wasps in the pepper
For an effective treatment, it is important to respect the conditions of use of the trichograms.
Tricho-pepper card calculator
Length of the plot: m
Width of the plot: m
Tricho-peppers cards needed : / week
Questions and answers on the introduction
- When to start the introductions for the pepper?
It is very important to introduce the tricho-peppers cards before the initial phase of fruit formation.
- How many cards do I need?
- A card of Tricho-peppers covers 100 m2. For a 1 ha field, the producer will need 100 cards per week. Your sale representative can help you calculate the number of cards and the number of introductions required depending on your region and your culture history.
- How long does the installation take?
- For 1 hectare, the installation takes approximately 30 minutes.
- How often are the cards changed?
- Anatis Bioprotection advises to change the cards every 7 days. This allows to keep a constant pressure of Trichogramma wasps and not to forget to introduce them (which can happen, with introductions every 10 days).
- How long do tricho-peppers cards keep?
- Our tricho-peppers can be stored for up to 4 weeks in the refrigerator (4 to 10º C). We can send a batch of cards for monthly treatments
- How many introductions will there be in total?
- In general, between 4 and 5 introductions are necessary to control the European corn borer in the pepper*.
* Depending on the presence of univoltine / bivoltine breeds, the type of production (field, greenhouse and tunnel), the region and weather conditions.
- Do I need skilled labor to make introductions?
- No, setting up the Tricho-peppers cards is very simple and does not require professional training or application permits.
See the Tricho-peppers sheet