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Fighting Leek Moths in Garlic Crops Using Trichogramma

Published on: | Created by: Roxanne S. Bernard

Tags: garlic, leek moth, pepper, trichogramma

Field of garlic with small bags of trichogramma to fight leek moth

Leek moth: major garlic pest

Logo Anatis BioprotectionTemperatures are gradually rising and the snow is starting to melt. Spring is finally on its way! Garlic bulbs planted in the fall are starting to grow, for harvesting this season. Unfortunately, the milder spring weather brings worry about the emergence of a major garlic pest: the leek moth (Acrolepiopsis assectella).


Leek moth: portrait of a pest

The leek moth is an invasive species, native to Europe. It was spotted for the first time in eastern Ontario in 1993 and in Quebec in 2001. The caterpillars feed on plants from the Alliaceae family (leek, garlic, onions, chives, etc.), causing damage to the young leaves, flowers and cloves, resulting in a loss of yield.

Leek moth: life cycle

  • The adults spend winter in plant debris.
  • Adults become active at 9.5 °C.
  • Females lay 2-6 days after breeding.
  • Females lay 80 to 240 eggs.
  • There are three generations of leek moths in Quebec.
leek moth on garlic
A) Larvae of leek moth on a garlic plant B) cocoon of leek moth. C) Damage on garlic. ©Anatis Bioprotection

Trichogramma wasps against leek moth

trichogramma wasps Trichogramma are tiny wasps that parasitize butterfly and moth eggs. In agriculture, they are mainly used to control corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), armyworms (Spodoptera sp.) and False looper (Trichoplusia sp.).

Trichogramma brassicae pupae are glued to cards and introduced in field. Once set up, adult trichogramma will emerge after 5 to 7 days, depending on environmental conditions. Upon emergence, the female trichogramma wasps will actively search for moth eggs on the surface of the garlic leaves. Once detected, she lays inside them. The trichogramma larvae will grow inside the moth egg and feed on the future caterpillar in formation. This will cancel the future generation of leek moth.

trichogramme et teigne du poireau dans l'ail
Figure 2. A) Card containing trichogramma pupae in garlic. B) Eggs (0,4 mm) of leek moth. C) Egg (0,4 mm) of leek moth parasitized by a trichogramma wasps. ©Anatis Bioprotection

Follow these four steps to protect your garlic from leek moths


1 Scout by using pheromone lure traps

Releases should start as soon as moths are first detected (pheromone lure traps) or in early May (for Quebec and Ontario). If trichogramma wasps are not released before laying period, they can not prevent the development of larvae (= damage).

Scouting helps to determine the arrival of adults and the laying period. As soon as one leek moth is captured on the trap, it's time to introduce the trichogramma cards. Pheromone traps for leek moth are only available by reservation from March to April. For more information, please contact Anatis Bioprotection Sales representatives.

Monitoring for leek moth:





2Introduce the right number of cards

Trichogramma

The introduction rates depends of the crop area. Trichogramma wasps must be uniformly distributed (by length and width). A bad distribution would cause unprotected areas.

The first card is placed 3 meters from the edge of the field and the next one every 7 meters. For example, for plot of 30 meters by 20 meters :

30m wide / 7m = 4 introduction rows*

20m long / 7m = 3 cards per introduction row*

* Round to the nearest unit.

Contact your Anatis Bioprotection representative to determine your needs.

plan d'introduction
Figure 3. Example of a trichogramma wasps introduction plan in a field of garlic. ©Anatis Bioprotection

3Put new cards every week

Each female leek moth lays up to a hundred eggs over a period of three to four weeks. That's why we need to release weekly new trichogramma wasps in the crop.

New cards must be introduced every 7 days, from the leek moth emergence to the appearance of the garlic flower. In general, 4 to 6 introductions are required to protect your crop against 1st and 2nd generation of the leek moth.

4Keep cards in the field

Depending of the temperature, trichogramma wasps will emerge from their cards after 2 to 7 days. By cooler temperature, the emergence of trichogramma can be done over a longer period of time.

To prevent removal of trichogramma wasps not emerged, keep each card in the field for a minimum of 3 consecutive weeks.


Benefits and limitations

Benefits



The use of trichogramma wasps provides many benefits:

  • Simple to use;
  • Quick to install (30 minutes/ha);
  • Reduces ricks to the environment and human health
  • Promotes natural enemies and insect pollinators.

Limitations

Trichogramma are living organisms and their work may be affected by the following factors:

  • Frost (= mortality);
  • Excessive heat (32°C and above = mortality);
  • Pesticides applications;
  • Poor storage or handling conditions.

See the Tricho-Gard sheet

trichogramme et teigne du poireau dans l'ail

Availability


For the residential and commercial market.

Additional information



  1.   - Leek Moth - A Pest of Allium crops
  2.   - Acrolepiopsis assectella (Leek Moth) - Fact Sheet by Canadian Food Inspection Agency
  3.   - Tracking the march of leek moth in Ontario - ONvegetables
  4.   - Leek Moth and New Plant Diseases Target Maine Garlic - Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association
  5.   - Acrolepiopsis assectella (leek moth) - Invasive Species Compendium (CABI)
  6.   - Leek Moth - Ontario CropIPM
  7.   - Living with the Leek Moth - An Organic Approach
  8.   - Leek Moth (Acrolepiopsis assectella)
  9.   - Acrolepiopsis assectella - Perdue University


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